trance is characterized by a transient alteration in identity
whereby one's normal identity is temporarily replaced (possessed)
by a spirit, ghost, deity, or other person. The experience of
being "possessed" by another entity, such as a person,
god, demon, animal, or inanimate object, holds different meanings
in different cultures and therefore the diagnosis for this disorder
may be culturally bound. While possession is a common experience
in many cultures, in Western industrialized cultures, such experiences
are not the norm.
complained of a variety of associated symptoms:
control over one's actions.
Behavior change or acting differently.
Loss of awareness of surroundings.
Loss of personal identity.
Difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy at the time of
Change in tone of voice.
Loss of sense of time.
Loss of memory.
Belief that one's body changed in appearance.
Some disorders have similar symptoms. The clinician, therefore,
in his diagnostic attempt, has to differentiate against the following
disorders which need to be ruled out to establish a precise diagnosis.
Currently 'trance and possession' disorders under the general
rubric of dissociative disorder (ICD-10) implying a psychological
causation of symptoms. However, there is evidence that brain damage
is also a causal factor.
Delirium which involve
Post Trumatic Stress
Trauma. - temporal and frontal lobe lesions .
associated with memory loss.
is multifactorial, in which spiritual, social, psychological and
physical factors may all play an aetioIogical role. It is also
commonly accepted that dissociative identity disorder have their
aetiology in an early history of repeated trauma and abuse, often
to horrific degrees. However, as yet, there are no biological
theories concerning the origin of these disorders. Therefore,
besides screening for common medical and psychiatric conditions,
the clinician should also examine the particular cultural context
in which the patient presents.
A consideration in the treatment
of Trance and Possession Disorder
is determining whether the person is in the midst of an episode
of mental disorder or having a spiritual problem. Therefore treatment
currently revoles around assistance to cope with the physical
aspects of possession.
and Psychotherapy [ See
Therapy Section ]:
therapy and psychotherapy may be helpful in certain situations.
Family therapy is often helpful to assist relatives in coping
with the affected individual. Behavioral techniques used in a
therapeutic setting, or in the home can help a person learn behaviors
that will lead to social acceptance.
Psychopharmacology Section ] :
the treatment of this pstychosis is similar to that of Schizophrenia
and therefroe the following may be used: